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Mars 2020 les news de la Synergologie

De Philippe Turchet   

Docteur (Ph-D) en Sciences du Langage 

Chercheur associé (Laboratoire MoDyCo/CNRS, Université Paris-Nanterre) 

Fondateur de la Synergologie

« Le Covid-19 se propage entre humains par voie aérienne, mais surtout, à 80% par contact manuel » (1). Il est vrai que le fait de toucher les muqueuses du visage – le nez, les yeux et la bouche, offre au virus une porte d’entrée dans le corps.

Est-ce à dire qu’il suffirait potentiellement que nous cessions complètement de porter les mains à notre visage pour que le nombre de personnes infectées sur la planète soit divisé par 4… ? Potentiellement, oui…

Mais pourquoi une mesure si simple à effectuer, une mesure que nous connaissons tous, s’avère dans les faits si compliqués à mettre en œuvre ? Et bien simplement parce que se toucher le visage, le caresser, le gratter même en l’absence de boutons est ressenti par notre cerveau comme une nécessité. Nous nous touchons en moyenne 23 fois par heure le visage (2). Et pourquoi ?

Les émotions lorsqu’elles nous perturbent, font naître des démangeaisons très brèves (3), et l’augmentation des gestes autocentrés nous permet d’extérioriser cette crispation intérieure. Les régions cérébrales impliquées dans la neurobiologie du sentiment (dans les cortex somatosensoriels de l’insula et de SII) deviennent pendant ce temps atone si nous nous grattons (5,6). 

Le fait de se gratter fait donc descendre le niveau émotionnel. Le cortex cingulaire cesse de travailler. Or, cette zone est impliquée dans la douleur. Dans le même temps, les aires du cortex préfrontal impliquées dans les récompenses ou les comportements compulsifs deviennent réactives, expliquant pourquoi se gratter est en même temps si agréable (7)

Les primates non humains, les singes ne se conduisent pas différemment de nous. Isolés dans des cages, ils se grattent moins souvent que s’ils sont placés en groupe. Dans leur milieu naturel, les vocalisations des groupes rivaux, provoqueront chez eux des démangeaisons indicatrices d’une tension émotionnelle négative (8).

Parallèlement, nous plaçons les mains sur le visage pour une autre raison, pour se reconcentrer et remédier ainsi à la distraction de l’attention en réactivant la mémoire de travail (9). D’ailleurs, plus la concentration est continue et plus la main reste sur le visage longtemps (10). Nous utilisons autant la main gauche que la main droite pour effectuer ces multiples auto contacts sur le visage. Et bien sûr comme tous ces mouvements sont effectués spontanément, lorsque nous pensons à les réprimer, il est donc trop tard.

C’est ainsi, le coronavirus sur lequel nous pourrions assez facilement reprendre un peu de contrôle, continue simplement son périple parce que nous sommes émus, réfléchissons et parce que les mains sur le visage nous aident dans ces tâches.

Les mains sur le visage sont la parfaite illustration que le corps se met en action et que le cerveau ne fait que prendre conscience de ce que notre corps a déjà mis en œuvre à son insu, car c’est lorsque les mains sont sur notre visage que nous prenons conscience qu’il faudrait éviter que nos mains aillent sur notre visage.

1)https://www.topsante.com/medecine/maladies-infectieuses/zonoses/coronavirus-chinois-quels-sont-les-symptomes-qui-doivent-alerter-634746
(2) Etude publiée en 2015 dans l’American Journal of Infection Control observant qu’un groupe d’étudiants en médecine se touchait le visage en moyenne 23 fois par heure. 
(3)Kimura, D. « The neural basis of gesture », dans Whitaker , H. et Harry A. Studies in neurolinguistics, vol. 2, Academic Press, 1976, p. 145- 156.(4) Cyrulnik, B (2002) Un merveilleux malheur, Odile Jacob, Paris 
(5) Craig Arthur D, Chen Kawey, Bandy Daniel J, Reiman Eric M, : Thermosensory activation of insuar cortex “ Nature neuroscience, 3, 2000, PP184-190.
(6)Ikoma, A Steinhoff, Stander, S. Yosipovitch, G et Schmeltz, M.(2006) The neurobiology of itch Nature reviews. Neuroscience. , vol. 7, no7, pp. 535-54
(7) Raymond, J. « It Feels Good and Everybody Does It. Scientists are using state-of-the-art techno-logy to look at what happens in the brain when a person scratches an itch. There’s moregoing on than you might think », Newsweek, 31 janvier 2008. 
(8) Meguerditchian, A. (2009) Latéralité et communication gestuelle chez le babou in et le chimpanzé : à la recherche des précurseurs du langage, Thèse 2009.
(9) Mueller, S. M., Martin, S., & Grunwald, M. (2019). Self-touch: Contact durations and point of touch of spontaneous facial self-touches differ depending on cognitive and emotional load. PloS one, 14(3).
(10) Barroso F, Freedman N, Grand S (1980) Self-touching, performance, and attentional processes. Percept.Mot.Skills 50 (3): 1083–1089.
#coronavirus #covid19 #langagecorporel #synergologie

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